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翻译本领:怎样翻译外位语

yun 于2016-11-30公布 l 已有人阅读
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什么是外位语?外位语怎样翻译?

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实践上指相反事物的两个词或短句拆开来呈现在两个中央,用一个做句子的身分,把别的一个放在句外。我们就把这个居于构造之外的身分叫外位语,谁人构造之内的身分叫本位语。举个复杂的栗子”关起门来搞建立,如许是不可的”,此中”关起门来搞建立”是外位语,”这”是本位语,关于这类句子我们次要有两种办法:”译出来”和”译出来”.

一、译出来

所谓”译出来”行将外位语译成一个独立的身分与主句别离,分以下三种状况

1.译成外位语构造

如:
但是冤家们把大批的怜悯,大批的爱,大批的高兴,大批的眼泪分了给我,这些工具都是生活所必须的。
My friends then gave me in large quantities sympathy, love, joy and tears—things essential for existence.
有喜有忧,有笑有泪,有花有实,有香有色,既须休息 ,又长见地 ,这便是养花的兴趣。(老舍:《养花》)
Joy and sorrow, laughter and tears, flowers and fruit ,fragrance and color, manual labor and increased knowledge all these make up the joy of flower cultivation.
以上两例,都是套用汉语中含有外位语构造的句子框架来翻译。

2.译为独立的一个句子或许是并列句

有些冤家,连他们的名字我曩昔也不晓得,他们却关怀我的安康,到处探询探望我的“病况”,直到他们瞥见了我那被日光晒黑了的脸和膀子,他们才担心地浅笑了,这种情况确实值得人失泪。
 Some, whom I did not even know by name, showed concern over my health and went about inquiring after me. It was not until they saw my suntanned face and arms that they began to smile a smile of relief. All that was enough to move one to tears.
人间有不少的人为了家庭丢弃冤家,至多也会在家庭和冤家之间同等个界线,把家庭看得比冤家重过多少倍。这好像是很天然的事变。
Many people forsake their friends in favor of their own families, or at least draw a line of demarcation between families and friends, considering the former to be many times more important than the latter. That seems to be a matter of course.
轻渎的人虽然不少,我可总不忍——这一套又是书生之见。
Though many other people violate the taboo, I for my part cannot bear to do the same. This again is the impractical view of a bookish person.

3.将外位语构造译为由介词of ,as for, as to, as regard等引导的介词短语放在句首,通常实用于句子中呈现”至于”或含有此意味的句子

至于不挑食,其心态与下面类似。
As to picky eating, I often find people barely over forty becoming very choosy about food.

4. 译为同位语或非限定性定语从句

一团体既不克不及独立转移习尚,也该在悲观方面有所自守,邦同作弊,资助越出常轨的事儿,总可以免了吧,——这天然是书生之见,难免通达的人一笑。
If it is beyond one's capacity to single-handedly stem the prevailing social evils, one should at least be self-disciplined so as not to make matters worse. All this is undoubtedly the pedantic view of bookish person—a view which must sound ridiculous to all sensible gentlemen.(译为同位语)
众人常称大学为“最高学府”,这称号易滋曲解,仿佛过此 以上即无学问可言。
 A university has often been misleadingly referred to as "the highest seat of learning", which sounds as if there were no more learning to speak of beyond it.
(译为定语从句)

二、译出来

行将外位语作为句子的一局部来翻译,”融入”到句子中

1. 将外语构造转化成为名词从句或不定式短语,置于句末,作逻辑主语,而用it作方式主语。比方:

不观察、不研讨、提起笔来“硬写”,这便是不担任的态度.
It is sheer irresponsibility to pick up the pen and "force ourselves to write" without investigation or study.

2. 将"这""这些"略去不译,间接把外位语构造译为句中的一个身分

明天突然听说北京大学要开一个活动会,这个音讯使我很快乐。
Today I was very happy to hear that Peking University was about to schedule a sports meet.
他们依据本人的文学欣赏的才干,依据差别期间潮水,对文学作品提出本人的见解,相互争论,相互学习,相互启示,相互进步,这也是一种创作运动,对文学实际的建立会有很大的益处.
In accordance with their own capacity for literary appreciation and the different historical trends, the views they put forward for mutual discussion, study, inspiration and improvement are also something creative and conducive to the development of literary theory.
逢到和旧交说话,就不知不觉地把话题转到往事上去,这是我的习气。
When chatting away with my old friends, I am in the habit of unwittingly channeling the topic of conversation toward things of former days.
这种译法比拟灵敏,童鞋们要在平常多做积聚。

3. 指代主语的外位语,可译为句中的表语,有些中央称这种办法为”颠倒法”

如:
工场、铁道、枪炮等,这些是物质条件。
The material conditions are factories, railways, firearms and the like.
皮包,水壶,剃须刀,游览药箱等等,这些是游览的必须品。
The necessities for traveling are leather satchels, flasks, razors, small medicine kits, and the like.
完成经济开展,这是我们以后相称永劫间的中央任务.
For a relatively long period ahead ,the focus of our work is to realize the economic development.

综上,我们可以看到,汉译英时,外位语的处置办法是多种多样的,偶然可间接原封不动地套用原文的框架,偶然可停止须要的转换。但是终究选择何种办法,要充沛思索到英汉语差别的句法特点,联合上下文,以到达最佳的翻译结果。

【文章泉源:沪江英语】

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