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电子烟利害大论争:究竟对安康无益or无害?

kira86 于2018-10-18公布 l 已有人阅读
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电子烟对安康究竟无益照旧无害呢?群众对电子烟是何见解呢?这篇观察通知你。

 

 (文章泉源:美国《医学快讯》网站
原文地点:/read/bi/healthnews/https://m.medicalxpress.com/news/2018-10-e-cigs-debate-health-risksbenefits.html

原标题:E-cigs continue to spark debate over health risks/benefits

电子烟优劣大论争

October 10, 2018 by Amy Norton, Healthday Reporter

艾米·诺顿(Amy Norton) 2018-10-10

(HealthDay)—With sales of electronic cigarettes skyrocketing, Americans remain divided on whether the devices are a boon or a threat to public health.

(HealthDay)——固然电子烟的销量激增,但美国对电子烟是大众安康的“福音”照旧“危害”不同很大。

That's the main finding of a new HealthDay/Harris Poll that surveyed over 2,000 adults on their e-cigarette views.

之以是得出这一结论,是由于HealthDay/哈里斯民调搜集了2000多位成年人对电子烟的见解。

Vaping has long been promoted as a way to help smokers kick the habit—offering them a route to get nicotine without the carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

持久以来,蒸汽电子烟都作为戒断烟瘾的一种手腕推而广之,运用电子烟的益处便是可以防止吸入致癌物。

But e-cigarettes aren't harmless, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other health authorities. There's particular concern about young people vaping—in part, because nicotine can harm brain development, which continues until about age 25.

但美国疾控中央(CDC)和其他安康威望机构以为电子烟并非100%平安。 他们尤其关怀蒸汽电子烟对青年人的影响,由于尼古丁会对大脑发育形成不良影响,而大脑完全发育大约在25岁左右。

In the poll, most adults did have misgivings about e-cigarettes: 85 percent said they were worried that the long-term health effects of the devices are unknown; and 83 percent were at least "somewhat" concerned about teenagers using e-cigarettes.

在这项民调中,大局部成年人对电子烟的确心存忌惮。 85%的人称电子烟对安康的临时影响还不得而知;尚有83%表现了对青少年运用电子烟的担心。

In fact, 43 percent of adults felt that e-cigarettes are actually more dangerous than traditional cigarettes.

现实上,43%的成年人以为电子烟比传统香烟更风险。

On the flip side, about as many people (41 percent) viewed e-cigarettes as "healthier" than traditional cigarettes. And 42 percent rated them as an "excellent way" to quit.

反过去讲,约有41%的人以为电子烟比传统香烟更平安安康。 42%的人乃至将它评为戒断烟瘾的“最佳方法”。

It all adds up to differing views, and possibly confusion, about e-cigarettes and their health effects.

这种种后果只会让大众对电子烟极端对安康的影响愈加狐疑。

There are, in fact, many unknowns.

电子烟有太多的未知等候探究。

Unfortunately, at this time we have no scientific evidence on the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes, especially given the unknown effects of the aerosols and flavorings in e-cigarette liquids, said Dr. Thanh-Huyen Vu, a research assistant professor at Northwestern University in Chicago.

芝加哥东南大学研讨助理传授于青玄(Thanh-Huyen Vu)博士称:“很遗憾,我们还未掌握到迷信的证据以验证电子烟对安康的临时影响,尤其是烟油中气雾和香料对安康的影响。”

However, researchers know plenty about nicotine.

但研讨职员对尼古丁却再熟习不外了。

The drug "is well known to be addictive and toxic, and to have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and on health in general," Vu said.

于博士说:“众所周知,尼古丁是一种有毒且会上瘾的物质,对全体安康以及心血管都有不良影响。”

And that's enough to raise concerns about teenagers' e-cigarette use, she added.

她说这已充足惹起大众对青少年运用电子烟的担心。

In addition, Vu said, studies have found that teenagers and young adults who use e-cigarettes are more likely than non-users to take up smoking.

于博士还说,曾经有研讨发明运用电子烟的青少年和年老人更容易染上烟瘾。

And what about adults who use e-cigarettes in place of traditional ones?

那那些运用电子烟完全替换传统香烟的人如今怎样样了呢?

The devices do allow people to avoid the chemicals they would inhale from burning tobacco, Vu noted.

于博士也留意到,电子烟确承认以防止运用者吸入烟草熄灭开释的化学物。

It's been speculated that using them may be associated with better health outcomes, compared to traditional cigarette smoking, she said.

她还说到:“相比传统香烟,运用电子烟对安康更有利,这一猜想不断存在。”

But again, Vu pointed out, there's the nicotine and its own health effects.

但是于博士指出电子烟含有尼古丁,尼古丁对安康的影响显而易见。

E-cigarettes come in different forms, with some emulating traditional cigarettes or pipes. One highly popular brand, called Juul, is shaped like a USB flash drive, and reportedly accounts for one-third of e-cigarette sales in the United States.

电子烟外形各别,有些似传统香烟,有些似烟斗;此中 Juul是最受欢送的一个牌子,形状相似USB,据报道它的销量占美国电子烟市场的三分之一。

Last week, the CDC reported that Juul sales shot up 641 percent between 2016 and 2017. Researchers called the trend worrying because the devices have a particularly high nicotine content and are popular with young people.

上个星期,CDC的陈诉指出Juul在2016和2017年间的销量暴跌641%。研讨职员称这一趋向让人担心,由于电子烟的尼古丁含量很高,在年老人中尤其受欢送。

No teenager should be vaping, said Gregory Conley, president of the American Vaping Association—referring to a common term for e-cigarette use.

美国蒸汽烟协会(American Vaping Association)会长格雷戈里·康利(Gregory Conley)以为青少年就不该该运用蒸汽电子烟。

However, Conley disputed the notion that e-cigarettes are driving kids to smoke. As researchers from the University of Buffalo recently argued, teen smoking has continued to decline at the same time e-cigarette use has risen.

但是,康利并不以为电子烟和青少年儿童吸烟有必定联络。 近来,布法罗分校的研讨职员辩称电子烟的引入反而使青少年烟民数目低落了。

Conley questioned the poll finding that 43 percent of people think e-cigarettes are more dangerous than traditional cigarettes. He said past surveys have found less fear around the devices.

同时,康利也对“43%的人以为电子烟比传统香烟更风险”这一民调结论持质疑态度。 他说过来的一切观察都指向电子烟危害小。

But if people do think vaping is worse than smoking, Conley blamed misleading messages from certain researchers and media stories.

但假如群众以为蒸汽电子烟比吸烟更蹩脚,那么康利就该责备某些研讨职员和交际媒体成心给大众转达错误的信息了。

As long as vaping is helping smokers quit, it will bring public health benefits, he said.

他说:“只需蒸汽电子烟有助于戒断烟瘾,它就对大众安康有利。”

Conley pointed to research evidence of that: Last year, a study at Georgetown University estimated that up to 6.6 million smokers would live "substantially longer" if they replaced their traditional cigarettes with e-cigarettes.

康利拿出客岁乔治城大学的研讨,这项研讨证明假如烟民们都从传统香烟转而电子烟,则将有高达660万的烟民的寿命会更长。

And a 2016 report from the Royal College of Physicians concluded that e-cigarettes—when used by smokers aiming to quit—are "likely" to benefit public health.

英国皇家外科医学会(Royal College of Physicians)2016年的一份陈诉指出假如那些决计戒断烟瘾的烟民运用电子烟,则很能够给大众安康带来宏大的效益。

Still, Vu said that based on studies so far, it's unclear how effective the devices really are in helping smokers ultimately quit. "E-cigarette use is still new, so it will take time to prove," she added.

然后,于博士说基于现在的研讨,电子烟对戒断烟瘾的功效还不明白。 “电子烟还是新兴事物,需求工夫去验证它的临时效益。”

This HealthDay/Harris Poll was conducted online within the United States between Sept. 25-27 2018, among 2,008 U.S. adults (aged 18 and over). This online survey is not based on a probability sample and therefore no estimate of theoretical sampling error can be calculated.

这项民调于2018年9月25至27号接纳在线观察的方式停止,到场观察的人数达2008人(年事大于18岁)。 这项在线观察并非基于概率抽样,因而实际上不存在抽样偏差。

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